The drugs or other substances that enhance the cognitive function, creativity, memory, reasoning, planning, problem solving, attentional and inhibitory control are called Nootropics. They are also known as cognitive enhancers or smart drugs.
Noocube is the brain supplement for enhancement of focus and mental clarity. It helps to increase alertness and to manage stress which is required in today’s lifestyle. The food we eat and the nutrients we supply to our body are not always enough to fulfill the requirements of our brain. Other essential ingredients along with nootropics make Noocube an exceptional cognitive enhancer. It is not only effective but also safe.
The ingredients present in Noocube are so effective that they are even considered effective treatment for brain diseases like Alzheimer’s disease.
To improve cognition, stimulants are the class of drugs which is most commonly used. One of the examples of stimulants is caffeine. It is primarily used to enhance cognition and treat difficulties of motor function associated with Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson’s disease.
Nootropics are especially used by the students to enhance the productivity. There are many drugs included in nootropics and each class has a different mechanism of action. The drugs which enhance the cognitive functions, executive functions and memory are divided into following classes:
The classes of stimulants that can give a cognitive enhancing effect are either direct or indirect agonist of dopamine receptor (D1), adrenoceptor (A2) or both receptors. When the stimulants are used at low therapeutic concentrations, only then they have cognitive enhancing effects. Otherwise, the increased concentrations of these stimulants can cause cognitive deficit. Some examples of stimulants used as cognitive enhancers are:
- Xanthines- among xanthenes, most prominent is caffeine. It enhances performance and alertness. People taking lower doses of it show enhanced alertness. While an improved performance require somewhat higher doses.
- Amphetamine- it is effective to enhance working memory, episodic memory as well as inhibitory control. These effects of amphetamine are more noteworthy in patients of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It also produces an enhancing effect on task saliency.
- Eugeroics- Clinically they are advised for daytime sleepiness after sleep apnea treatment, shift work sleep disorder and narcolepsy. These are basically the agents responsible for promoting wakefulness. In sleep deprived people they can enhance alertness. Also used to facilitate problem solving and reasoning.
- Methylphenidate- it improves planning latency, inhibitory control, working memory, episodic memory, task saliency and aspects of attention. It is also in improving performance on tiresome tasks that require much effort.
These are the substances that increase the level of acetylcholine in the brain. It is a neurotransmitter involved in accessing memory, retaining new information, performing analysis and calculation as well as in controlling inhibition and attention time. The rate of building new connections can be increased by increasing the level of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is formed by combining acetate with choline which is obtained from diet. However, cholinergics are important supplements when diet doesn’t fulfill the requirements of choline by the body. Acetylcholinestrase inhibitors are those drugs which inhibit the breakdown of acetylcholine.
They optimize the energy supply of your brain cells. Cerebral vasodilators are the nootropics. They affect metabolic functions of neurons and increase the blood flow. The brain will receive more oxygen and glucose. They make ATP, as they are two important ingredients required for the synthesis of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the energy required by neurons and help in the cellular processes.
This class is not well understood but they are still important for proper brain functioning and health. They are derivatives of herbs and are responsible for decreasing the sensitivity to stressors present in environment that can damage cellular systems.
These increase the level of dopamine in the brain or they are known to enhance the activity of dopamine in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter responsible for causing sensations like pleasure when a person wins something, or receive praise or eat something good. It boosts confidence, focus and motivation by reducing depression, anxiety and stress. When the release of dopamine is increased in pre-frontal cortex, it improves cognition and alertness. Levodopa is its example which improves episodic memory encoding and verbal episodic memory.
It increases the level of neurotransmitter Serotonin. This neurotransmitter has an important role in mood. It is responsible to control different processes like appetite, sleep patterns and mood regulation. Its deficiency can lead to insomnia, depression and lack of attention. The nootropics of enhancement of mood may act as precursors of serotonin or they may act as serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
- Tolcapone- improves episodic memory encoding and verbal episodic memory.
- Atomoxetine- when it is used at an optimal dose, it improves aspects of attention as well as working memory.
- L-Theanine- it has psychoactive effects that improves task switching, alertness as well as attention.
- Desipramine- when used at an optimal dose, it improves aspects of attention and working memory.
These are also cognitive enhancers. These are sold OTC (over-the-counter). Their mechanism of action is not well understood however they are supposed to act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors. These are newer drugs. They enhance the sensitivity of the receptors of acetylcholine. The communication between neurons is more efficient. The most important racetam is Piracetam. The derivatives of piracetam is aniracetam, pramiracetam etc.
These include: Smart Drugs
- Panax ginseng- it increases speed of performing attention tasks and accuracy of memory. It also improves the performance in mental arithmetic tasks and mood. It is also known to reduce fatigue.
- Bacopa monnieri- It is actually an herb which is marketed as dietary supplement. It also has a role in enhancing memory.
- Ginkgo biloba- By chronic use, it can improve attention (particularly selective attention), long term memory as well as some executive processes.